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Basic knowledge of CNC machine
May 12 , 2023
1. Main functions and features
Numerically controlled (NC) machine tools have greatly advanced metalworking since their introduction in the 1950s. Operations that were previously performed manually can now be automated with NC machine tools. Shortly after their appearance, CNC machine tools began to incorporate computers, a technological evolution that led to the adoption of the name CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine tools.
It is worth noting that CNC lathes were originally developed at a university in Japan in the late 1950s. Later, existing lathes were commonly equipped with servo mechanisms, and both of these developments demonstrated and led to major developments in lathes to this day.
A lathe is a machine tool that turns a cylindrical material and cuts off unwanted parts by holding a tool (cutting tool) against it. In addition to turning with basic right cutting tools, other lathe methods include drilling, boring, grooving and threading.
In contrast, CNC lathes can selectively use dozens of cutter heads in preset programs for CNC-based automated machining. This not only enables precise cutting or other machining positions to be controlled by using a three-axis coordinate system, but also enables flexible machining and desired shapes by controlling the rotational speed and tool feed rate according to the workpiece material.
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